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LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort  is  speci-

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M'
              prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by  name;
              otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

              colorize  the  output;  WHEN can be 'never', 'auto', or 'always'
              (the default); more info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

              likewise, except do not append '*'

              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column  -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

              group directories before files;

              can   be  augmented  with  a  --sort  option,  but  any  use  of
              --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

              follow each command line symbolic link

              that points to a directory

              do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
              by -a or -A)

              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
              slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
              tion  for  the file the link references rather than for the link

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters  spe-

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is
              'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,  shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

              sort  by  WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t),
              version (-v), extension (-X)

              with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time:
              atime or access or use (-u) ctime or status (-c); also use spec-
              ified time as sort key if --sort=time

              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
              locale,  or  +FORMAT;  FORMAT  is interpreted like in 'date'; if
              FORMAT  is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  then  FORMAT1  applies  to
              non-recent  files  and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is pre-
              fixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside  the  POSIX

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access
              time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       The SIZE argument is an integer and  optional  unit  (example:  10K  is
       10*1024).   Units  are  K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y  (powers  of 1024) or KB,MB,...
       (powers of 1000).

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by  default  and
       with  --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
       standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS  environment
       variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

       GNU  coreutils  online  help:  <> 
       Report ls translation bugs to <>

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

       Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This  is  free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a  Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com-

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.23              September 2015                           LS(1)

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